Ice-Age Maps

Extent of Glaciation in various parts of the world

Extent of Glaciation in North America (above)

Solid Line: Approx. extent of glaciation during last (Wisconsin) ice age.
Dotted Line: Approximate extent of earlier glaciations.

Last Glacial Maximum 18,000 years ago

World Map

Glacial_Maximum_World_Map (1)

Last Glaciation – Northern Hemisphere



Europe during the last ice age




Sea level During Last Ice Age

Sea levels fall during every ice age. During the last ice age, sea levels stood around 370 feet lower than today.


See larger map – Sea Level During Last Ice Age


Puget Sound Glacial Animation – Video

This is so cool! Shows glacial retreat since 20,000 years ago

Vashon Glaciation Animation

Animation of the Vashon Glaciation 20,000 years ago to present. Model developed by Ralph Haugerud with assistance from Harvey Greenberg, content assistance by Brian Atwater, edit and titles by Britta Johnson, and production by Amir Sheikh.


Ice Sheet and Channeled Scablands Floods

Map - Ice Sheets and Channeled Scabland Floods

23 thoughts on “Ice-Age Maps”

  1. In the early stages of full glaciations Ice caps would form on the High Lands in Northern Ireland, Scotland, Lake District, and Norway first in the North, with the Alpine Ice Cap merging together shortly after. The Scots, Swiss, Austria and the Bavarians would become refugees very quickly; this first stage could take many tens of years, or twenty.
    But not for some time, we have several Grand Minimums and at least three 140 year Solar Warm Periods before that happens.
    Robert’s Ice Age map of the UK matches my experience when digging in my garden in Staffordshire, I have perfect, round iron stone ore and grit stone boulders just below Plough depth. No gold though, shucks! Go down 60 ft and the coal measures start.

    But Ice formation depends on the prevaling winds and their direction of travel. I would suggest that they start as lake effect snow, even coastal regions experience this once the Atmosphere and landmass is below zero.

  2. Hey Bob
    Do you have a map showing how far south or north was covered in snow during the ice ages? Just curious to see how much snow-free land will be available for the millions of people that head for the equator area when the next Ice Age starts. I would guess it will be a living Hell down there, No where near enough food for everyone.

  3. Any way you look at it there will be less land that is fit for agriculture and that ultimately means famine and population reduction by natural means. There will be a tundra and boreal forest and prairie zones in north america that will take over the temperate zones putting serious limits on food production. It won’t be balmy weather where the ice sheet stops.
    The subtropical zone and maybe as far north as Tennessee will be the new temperate zone. Beyond that you might manage to have ranching and not much more. Once the ice age sets in we are in for a whole new set of realities that will dictate how people live, where they live and how many live. It will be the real new world order for the next 1050 centuries.

    • During the last major advance of the ice, the oceans dropped 300-400 feet, exposing significant additional amounts of land. In the latitudes closer to the tropics, especially, more land area would have been available for cultivation.

      The big problems must occur during the Earth’s transition from one state to the other, I.e. from less ice and more ocean to more ice and less ocean. During the transition, there has to be years of massive, snow, rain and hail storms and an extension of the colder seasons along with a contraction and moderation of the warmer seasons. That’s when food would become scarce, and living would be very hard.

      Once the ice is established, I imagine regular seasons will return to the lower latitudes, and the weather will become more predictable, along with food production. Food just won’t be grown as far north as it once was, and all varieties will have to shift south just like human populations. In recent history, we have examples of this very thing happening when the Vikings were forced out of Greenland due to excessive cold, and the Anazasi were forced from their ancient habitations in the four corners region due to insufficient rainfall. Climate change has been forcing changes in cultivation and in human migration throughout all of prehistory, and recorded history.

      The rate of change is a concern, however. Slower change should foster adaptation. Rapid change will almost certainly mean greater loss of life. Apparently there are past examples of both kinds of change in the geologic record.

    • I put up a post on my university’s alumni board that if the cooling trend really takes off, it could hand the liberals everything they want such as solving the world’s food shortages as millions die off from food shortages due to dramatically shortened growing seasons, reducing the population on the planet due to millions dying off as they starve from shortened food sources and less C02 output because of less people and less areas of the world that’s habitable to produce emissions. Of course, I was soundly discredited because NASA is never wrong in their predictions.

    • It will be this way only if no one does anything about it. You might consider Rolf Witzsche’s website. Consider wandering around this for awhile:

      The key question is the technological response to ice age conditions. In a nutshell we will need all the energy we can get. Oil, gas, nuclear, geothermal, LENR, and so forth. We will also have to abandon the Green philosophy. The biosphere as we know it is doomed so the Green demands to save it at any price are all the more the ravings of lunatics.

      In short, the world political consensus must return to a pro- growth, pro-expansion viewpoint at a minimum. If you ever saw the old H. G. Well’s film “Things to Come” you may get the flavor of the attitude I have in mind. Unlike the horrible, ugly Green belief, technology, intelligently applied to achieve a goal, is the salvation of mankind.

      I say, intelligently applied; technological development increasingly since the end of World War II has been warped by political factors to serve as an object lesson for the Green agenda. This has produced fusion programs that go nowhere, fission reactors that are dangerous, and fanciful arguments (CO2) against oil and gas. When will you all realize you have been had.

  4. We’ll be okay for a while. Coming out of a glaciation is a rocket but going back into the freezer is more of a downhill ski run.

    We’ll see it coming and some have already. To keep growing crops in areas that will get colder (like where I live) and are already borderline climate zone 2 we’ll need to adjust.

    I’ve got some growing for 4 years now. It takes 4-5 years to get them up to speed but boy do they produce berries. I highly recommend the “Berry Blue” and “Honey Bee”. Easy to pick. Put a plastic sheet under and shake.

    “Plants will over winter in temperatures as low as -45°C. Flowers can be exposed to temperatures of -7°C with no detriment to fruit set. Plants will most often bear fruit after only one dormant season. ”

    I can vouchsafe for that statement at least down to -35 C and frost on flowers to -5 C.

  5. The North American map “Last Glaciation – Northern Hemisphere” shows a non-ice area – gray above the letters ‘ ag’ of Chicago (dot is misplaced for that city).
    That area is called “The Driftless Area.”
    The map suggests that ice surrounded this area. That appears to be misleading. Different stages over time brought ice from one side or the other but not simultaneously. So the view is a composite, not a snap shot.

    Maps for the Puget Sound:

    Region-wide view:

  6. cold = dry too
    the reason Australia has sparse rainforest and is mostly bloody gum trees is the ice age dryness and cold that knocked the more useful plants off, what survived was “woody weeds”
    be damned funny to be around to see all the greentards councillors when the supposedly inundated shores are higher n dryer and access to beaches isnt so easy anymore:-)

    • There is an exhibit that shows Texas in the ice age, in the Perot museum in Dallas, TX. Dallas is now green and full of trees. In the ice age, it was very dry and only supported grasses (much like we have dry grass most of the year in California)

      It is interesting that colder climates are actually dryer, and warmer climates wetter, exactly opposite of what the AGW crowd used to tell us. I think it was more for the propaganda aspect. In most people’s minds warmer = desert, which is dryer. If they told us all that warmer would really make the whole world a tropical paradise -the scare effect would go away.

  7. It is my opinion that these maps are only showing us the tail end of the last ice age. There is a book that I read several years ago that is no longer in print but I recommend we all read it. It is called “Subdue the Earth” by Professor Yostrum of Sweden. He is no longer with us. In his book he points out to us that the world geology is not a gradualist process. He put forward the idea of catastrophism. Also importantly he showed me that there are signs of Ice Age glaciation on every continent. He spells out the fact that during such massive Ice Ages sea level quickly plunges to three or four kilometres lower than it is today. Thus putting every continent in the world well above the snow line all the year around. The Congo is a glacial depression. The Amazon is a glacial depression. Just like as Hudson Bay is a glacial depression. The Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean are glacial depressions too. Australia is covered in evidence of massive glaciation. It takes only one super volcano eruption to bring in the next major Ice Age and thus such a drop in sea level as massive amounts of snow and ice accumulate on the continents. The maps shown above are showing areas where the ice was moving. There are vast areas where the ice cap are simply stationary. Thus leaving no or very little signs.

    • Australia’s aboriginal populations have inhabited Australia for about 40,000 years or more yet there is no folklore concerning glaciation to my knowledge.

      A tropical/ sun tropical island continent wouldn’t expect to be covered in ice.

    • My understanding is that the sea level was about 400 – 450 feet lower than today at maximum glaciation. About a 1/4 mile or 0.4 km

  8. It appears that during an iceage much of Alaska is ice free. I occasionally hear warming arguments based on Alaskan weather and conditions. Any warming there may possibly be another sign of coming iceage conditions. Just a speculation. But perhaps Robert has some more insight n Alaska?

    • I wonder if the Polar Front(jet-stream) develops a stationary loop pattern a bit like that which saw last winter. A region of coolth pushes south out of the Arctic towards the Great Lakes and a corresponding region of mild mid-latitude air extends northward to Alaska and the Bering Straights.
      During times of increased sub Pacific Ocean volcanic activity the waters could be kept warm enough to prevent glaciation of the maritime lands.
      The wavy nature of the glaciation line is certainly hard to explain but I suspect it has something to do with ocean heat content and circulation.

  9. If true ice age on-set takes only a few decades it’s quite sobering to think of the human displacement during one life-time. London would cease to be a human habitation. The British Isles would be truely part of Europe again.

    • And Europe wouldnt exist, you cant feed 2 billion people from a Tundra plain, with a growing season of eight weeks

  10. Interesting. In the South Is of New Zealand in a town called Twizel in the great southern alpine region the glacial cut terraces are 3000 feet above the level of the town, up the mountain sides, and glacial lake! You can see them while driving up the road to the famous Mt Cook village. There was 3000′ of ice over the area just 12000 years ago!.

    • That same area had temperatures of -20 degrees, has not been that cold in years, could this be a sign of things to come?

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